Casper Aviation Platoon Agent Orange

 

 

vietnam service

The Facts & History About Agent Orange During The Vietnam War

Agent Orange is the name to which all herbicides are referred (technically) in error during the Vietnam War. The name, Agent Orange, has become synonymous for, and collective of, all herbicides used during the Vietnam War. Agent Orange, is also the identification of the harmful effects from herbicides (again, in error). The reality is that people don't have Agent Orange disease, rather, a disease, or cancer caused directly or indirectly from exposure to a herbicide containing dioxin. The name, Agent Orange, was derived from the orange stripe on drums in which the herbicide was stored.

Agent Orange (Scientifically)

Agent Orange was one of several defoliants (herbicides) containing trace amounts of a toxic contaminant, TCDD (dioxin). Defoliants were used during the Vietnam War to kill vast areas of jungle growth. The real, Agent Orange, was a 1:1 mixture of the n-butyl esters of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) and 2,4,5-trichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4,5-T). A byproduct contaminant of the manufacturing process for 2,4,5-T (used in all the agents during the Vietnam War) is 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-para-dioxin (TCDD). TCDD is commonly referred to as dioxin.

This chart contains a list of the herbicides (agents) used during the Vietnam War, and the amount of TCDD (dioxin) contamination present in the agents (per the USAF Herb Tapes):

 

Brief History of Agent Orange

In the early years of WWII, a grant was provided by the National Research Council to develop a chemical to destroy rice crops in Japan (the major food source of the Japanese). 2,4-D and 2,4,5-T (Agent Orange) was the result. A discussion between President Roosevelt and White House Chief of Staff, Admiral William D. Leahy determined that this heinous chemical should not be used. Agent Orange was not used during WWII.

In 1961, President Kennedy signed two orders allowing Agent Orange to be used in Vietnam. One order to destroy crops, and another order to defoliate the jungle. [Note: These orders were signed prior to major U.S. intervention.]

Agent Orange & other herbicides were used extensively thru 1970 (and thereafter until the end of the Vietnam War).

 

 

Grand Total: 8,165,491 Gallons Were Sprayed

South Vietnam Quadrants: I Corp II Corp III Corp IV Corp

I Corps - 2,355,322

Location

Orange White Blue Total Gallons

A Shau

53,550 2,550 6,128

62,228

An Hoa

6,500 1,800 11,250

19,550

Binh Hoa

8,220 0 1,600

9,820

Cam Lo

80,375 8,660 12,785

101,820

Camp Carrol

78,200 5,400 5,050

88,650

Camp Eagle

14,250 0 0

14,250

Camp Esso

53,410 5,600 0

64,510

Camp Evans

18,690 0 880

19,570

Camp Henderson

68,155 7,040 4,800

79,995

Chu Lai

12,170 4,150 1,598

17,918

Con Thien

84,700 12,460 10,925

108,085

Da Nang, China Beach

13,800 0 2,000

15,800

Dong Ha

54,385 5,060 9,935

69,380

Duc Pho, LZ Bronco

46,225 14,400 1,175

61,800

Firebase Jack

140,875 11,900 3,280

156,055

Firebase Rakkassan

150,145 23,900 2,510

176,555

Firebase West

15,405 3,690 18,480

37,575

Hill 63

20,500 3,200 0

23,700

Hill 69

11,620 4,150 1,598

17,368

Hoi An

17,520 3,000 13,950

34,470

Hue

41,395 0 5,070

46,465

Khe Sanh, Firebase Smith

43,705 3,040 4,300

51,045

LangCo Bridge

50,610 5,600 3,500

59,710

LZ Baldy

15,430 3,000 13,950

32,380

LZ Dogpatch, Hill 327

4,490 0 8,250

12,740

LZ Geronimo

22,535 14,000 468

37,003

LZ Jane, Firebase Barbara

91,150 6,750 3,700

101,600

LZ Langley, Firebase Shepard

72,105 7,040 4,800

83,945

LZ Profess, Hill 55

39,300 13,000 17,209

69,509

LZ Rockcrusher, Hill 85

47,800 0 0

47,800

LZ Rockpile

110,050 15,440 7,650

133,140

LZ Ross

15,405 6,720 18,508

40,633

LZ Sandra

118,780 20,210 24,755

163,745

LZ Snapper, Firebase Leather

11,350 0 3,000

14,350

Marble, Hill 59

15,405 6,720 18,508

40,633

Phu Bai

54,300 3,000 120

57,420

Phu Luc, LZ Tommahawk

78,250 4,000 0

82,250

Quang Nai

25,605 0 1,800

27,405

Quang Tri, LZ Nancy

68,000 2,750 3,700

74,450

2,355,322

II Corps - 1,054,406

Location         Orange White Blue Total Gallons
An Khe, Camp Radcliff 37,810 6,400 5,610

49,820

An Lao, LZ Laramie 68,970 490 10,570

80,030

Ban Me Thuot 16,000 9,250 0

25,250

Ben Het 80,495 7,230 3,000

90,725

Bon Song, LZ Two Bits 80,643 630 6,000

87,273

Bre Nhi 6,600 0 0

6,600

Cam Ranh Bay 21,227 1,373 0

22,600

Camp Granite 59,310 2,075 5,390

66,775

Che Oreo 0 1,800 0

1,800

Da Lat 575 0 0

575

Dak To 49,460 600 34,800

84,860

Firebase Pony 43,490 0 3,800

47,290

Kontum 0 415 0

415

LZ Dog, LZ English 63,073 630 6,000

69,703

LZ Oasis No Data
LZ Putter, Firebase Bird 50,095 0 7,200

57,295

LZ Uplift 43,455 3,220 275

46,950

Nha Trang 6,950 325 0

7,275

Phan Rang 110 2,075 0

2,185

Phan Thiet 5,000 330 220

5,550

Plei Ho, SF Camp 15,300 1,260 110

16,670

Plei Jerang 98,220 51,235 1,800

151,255

Pleiku 1,210 11,640 1,950

14,800

Puh Cat, LZ Hammond 29,700 7,210 0

36,910

Qui Nhon 53,215 1,800 4,125

59,140

Song Cau 5,650 55 0

5,705

Tuy An 13,215 3,740 0

16,955

Tuy Hoa 29,565 4,485 0

34,050

1,054,406

III Corps - 4,086,229

Location

Orange White Blue Total Gallons

An Loc

77,000 79,830 0

156,830

Ben Cat

87,250 83,640 20,105

190,995

Ben Hoa

35,045 124,525 3,950

163,520

Cholon

320 0 0

320

Cu Chi

59,150 67,540 14,105

140,795

Dau Tieng (Michelin)

32,370 45,800 3,800

81,770

Dien Duc, Firebase Elaine

66,850 25,800 0

92,350

Duc Hoa

750 0 0

750

Firebase Di An

6,000 0 1,595

7,595

Firebase Frenzel

13,445 57,560 900

71,905

Firebase Jewel, LZ Snuffy

219,550 146,010 7,300

372,860

Firebase Mace

34,280 23,350 730

58,360

Katum

299,420 239,395 20,000

558,815

Lai Khe

57,120 22,300 1,800

81,220

Loc Ninh

46,660 103,710 1,800

152,170

Long Binh, Firebase Concord

13,445 57,560 0

71,005

LZ Bearcat

17,840 75,470 0

93,310

LZ Fish Nook

44,000 23,800 0

67,800

LZ Schofield

38,640 17,210 7,800

63,650

Nha Be (Navy Base)

119,725 121,925 6,000

247,650

Nui Ba Den, Firebase Carolin

50,020 66,500 2,100

118,620

Phouc Vinh

484,383 146,576 12,810

643,769

Phu Chong

39,848 62,230 12,055

114,130

Phu Loi

79,000 83,430 0

162,430

Qua Viet

50,610 5,600 3,500

59,710

Quan Loi

44,190 34,300 0

78,490

Saigon

No Data

Song Be

1,900 9,220 0

11,120

Tan Son Nhut

6,320 0 1,595

7,915

Tay Ninh

720 3,225 600

4,545

Trang Bang

32,365 39,560 6,000

77,925

Vo Dat, Firebase Nancy

14,180 29,100 0

43,280

Vung Tau

7,350 0 0

7,350

Xuan Loc

23,865 58,750 660

83,275

4,086,229

IV Corps - 669,534

Location

Orange White Blue Total Gallons

Ben Luc

45,900 14,838 0

60,738

Ben Tre

24,800 24,750 0

49,550

Can Tho

15,160 13,915 11,685

40,760

Cao Lanh

1,875 2,935 830

5,640

Dong Tam

5,870 605 165

6,640

Firebase Grand Can(yon?)

0 1,540 0

1,540

Firebase Moore

9,820 0 0

9,820

Ham Long

3,275 1,620 0

4,895

Moc Hoa

12,400 6,590 0

18,990

My Tho

13,320 7,316 965

21,601

Nam Can

150,345 64,295 0

214,640

Phnom

0 184 0

184

Phu Quoc

19,000 0 0

19,000

Rach Gia

0 2,155 0

2,155

Seafloat

4,700 0 0

4,700

Soc Trang

3,410 2,391 1,280

7,081

Tan An

89,550 36,450 0

126,000

Tieu Con

8,700 0 0

8,700

Tra Vinh

9,885 8,000 0

17,885

Vinh Loi

30,010 0 0

30,010

Vinh Long

8,360 9,755 890

19,005

669,534

* Indicates some of the places that Casper Platoon flew missions to.

 

Note: This does NOT include US Army helicopter or ground applications, or any form of the insecticide programs by GVN, or the US military. The amount represents gallons within eight (8) kilometers of the area. Thus, each area is 9.6 miles in diameter.

 

Description TCDD (Dioxin) Amounts

Agent Orange

1.77 to 40 ppm

Agent Blue (Purple)

32.8 to 45 ppm

Agent Red (Pink)

65.6 ppm

Agent White (Green)

65.6 ppm

Silvex

1 to 70 ppm

2,4,5-T (Current)

0.1 ppm or less

 

 

Vietnam and Agent Orange Facts

Demand for military Agent Orange resulted in higher levels of dioxin contamination than in the 2,4,5-T produced for civilian applications in the U.S. As noted in the above chart.

The U.S. Air Force military operation Ranch Hand began spraying Agent Orange on areas of South Vietnam in August 1965 (though it was used prior to this date).

The US Air Force Herb Tapes accounted for just over 8 million gallons of the herbicides used in South Vietnam.

18 million gallons of Agent Orange were reported to have been used in South Vietnam.

Agent Orange caused Vietnamese farmers to lose about 70% of their crops. (One of the goals for using herbicides was to deprive the enemy of food).

6,250+ square miles of South Vietnam can not be farmed because of defoliation. This is still true more than 30 years later.

A C-123 (Provider) could dump 11,000 lbs. of Agent Orange over 300 acres in four minutes.

Brief History of Agent Orange

In the early years of WWII, a grant was provided by the National Research Council to develop a chemical to destroy rice crops in Japan (the major food source of the Japanese). 2,4-D and 2,4,5-T (Agent Orange) was the result. A discussion between President Roosevelt and White House Chief of Staff, Admiral William D. Leahy determined that this heinous chemical should not be used. Agent Orange was not used during WWII.

In 1961, President Kennedy signed two orders allowing Agent Orange to be used in Vietnam. One order to destroy crops, and another order to defoliate the jungle. [Note: These orders were signed prior to major U.S. intervention.]

Agent Orange and other herbicides were used extensively through 1970 (and thereafter until the end of the Vietnam War).

Vietnam Veterans and their families filed a class action suit against seven chemical companies (Dow Chemical, Monsanto, Uniroyal, Hercules, Diamond Shamrock, Thompson Chemical, and T.H. Agriculture). It was settled out of court in May 1984 for victims and families of those exposed to herbicides for $180,000,000 (the lawyers got a staggering 100 million dollars). The amount given to qualifying families was a pitance. Example: A woman whose husband suffered, and eventually died... leaving her and three children was given just over $3,000.00 (you should have been there the day she told me that). Another friend suffered with a brain tumor along with other herbicide related diseases for over three years. He was awarded $1,860.00.

Victims and families of those exposed to herbicides in Vietnam had until January 17, 1995 to apply for compensation.  Although that deadline has passed, the address was: Agent Orange Veteran Payment Program, PO Box 110, Hartford, CT 06104.

 

Terms

Half Life. The length of time required for half a quantity of drug, or other substance residing in a living organism to be metabolized, or eliminated by normal biological processes. It is also called biological half-life. The half-life of dioxin is 8.7 years in humans (as determined in the Ranch Hand (follow-up) studies).

PTSD, or Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (Dysfunction). A psychological condition that occurs after a trauma (stressful trauma situation, e.g., war, accident, rape, robbery, etc.). PTSD is characterized by anxiety, depression, guilt, sorrow (or grief), a sense of shame, death anxiety, panic, low self-esteem, rage, and/or any combination of these. Treatment varies with the severity, and willingness of the person to seek help.

Sarcoma. A malignant tumor arising from connective tissues. Soft Tissue Sarcomas are tumors in muscles, fat, fibrous tissue, and vessels serving these tissues as well as the peripheral nervous system.

TCDD Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (also 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-para-dioxin), commonly known as dioxin. TCDD is in reality a family of dioxins that contain four (4) chlorine atoms each. Therefore, TCDD is classified as a chlorinated organic chemical. TCDD (dioxin) is, perhaps, the most detrimental and damaging chemical ever produced.  It's effects will be with us for generations.

 

Source & credit for above information to: Gary D. Moore, (The Last) Chairman, Michigan Agent Orange Commission, 5161 Howard Road,  Smiths Creek, Michigan 48074-2023 USA.  Last updated: October 1, 2000.

 

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 This site was last updated 12/19/04